ORM Diagram

Object-role modelling can be used for data modelling in software engineering business activity, being simply the semantics of a universe of discourse. The final object-role models, which were coined in the 1970s, use different graphical symbols, based on set theory as well as first order predicate logic, which enables the modeller to make an unambiguous definition of a so called “arbitrary universe of discourse”. Basically, object-role models are graph database models, better analysed and designed to benefit the relational database design.

ORM based tools as well as object-role models have been used for more than 30 years and still are very popular. The mentioned object-role models have been used for modelling the business rules, data warehouses, web forms, requirements engineering forms and XML-Schemas. Originally, the roots of object-role models can be traced to research into semantic modelling for information systems during the 1970s in Europe, having an early contribution came in 1973. In that year Michael Senko wrote about data structuring in the “IBM Systems Journal” and in 1974 Jean-Raymond Abrial contributed an article about Data Semantics, followed by Eckhard Falkenberg, who published the papers in June 1975 mentioning the object-role models, as well as in 1976 again.

Already in 1989 the thesis on object-role model was completed by Terry Halpin, incorporating several extensions and, of course, providing the first full formalization of the approach. Same year, he and G.M. Nijssen wrote a book named "Conceptual Schema and Relational Database Design", as well as several joint papers. In those papers they provided the first formalization of the object-role modelling, writing six more books and over 160 technical papers about it later.

The object-role modelling can be also used in combination with standardised relation types, involving the associated roles as well as a taxonomy (the practice and science of classification) of concepts and machine-readable dictionary. Standardisation of the so called “relation types” (also known as “fact types”), concepts and roles enables increased possibilities for model reuse as well as for model integration. All object-role models are based on elementary facts. The mentioned facts can be expressed in many different types of diagrams, based on the object-role modelling process, which can be verbalised into natural language.

With object-role modelling, the propositions (which can be related to the objects of belief, primary bearers of truth-value as well as other “proportional attitude”, the meanings of declarative sentences and the referents of that-clauses) are abstracted into "fact types", when the individual propositions are regarded as “sample data”. The difference between an "elementary fact" and a "fact" itself is that an elementary fact cannot be simplified without loss of meaning. The mentioned "fact-based" approach facilitates transforming, modelling and querying information from any needed domain.

Object-role models are known to be “attribute-free”, treating all elementary facts as relationships and the decisions for grouping facts into structures, as implementation concerns irrelevant to semantics, which differs them from the models in the Unified Modelling Language and the entity-relationship methods. Object-role models improve the semantic stability, enabling any verbalization into natural language in a way of avoiding attributes in the base model.

The so called “fact-based modelling” includes procedures for mapping facts to attribute-based structures and all fact-based textual representations are based on formal subsets of native languages. Thus, the object-role models are simpler to understand by those people, who have no technical education. Although, fact-based graphical notations are known to be more expressive, to compare to the Unified Modelling Language and the entity-relationship ones. Also, it’s important to remember that object-role model can be automatically mapped to deductive and relational databases.

Object-role modelling 2 is simply the latest generation of object-role modelling, using the main objectives for the ORM 2 graphical notation, which are support for new features (such as role path delineation, modalities and closure aspects), more compact display of ORM models with no need of compromising clarity, an improved internationalization (for example, to avoid English language symbols), the simplified drawing rules for facilitating creation of a graphical editor and an extended use of views for selectively suppressing/displaying detail.

System development usually involves such stages, as feasibility study, requirements analysis, design of both operations and data as well as logical design, external design, internal design as well as its implementation, prototyping, validation, testing and, finally, maintenance. The steps of the schema design procedure include drawing the fact types and applying a population check, transforming familiar information examples into elementary facts and applying quality checks, checking for entity types that are meant to be combined, noting any arithmetic derivations, adding uniqueness constraints, checking arity of fact types, adding mandatory role constraints and checking for logical derivations, adding value, set comparison as well as subtyping constraints, adding other constraints and performing final checks.

ORM Diagram

Example 1. ORM Diagram

The mentioned conceptual schema design procedure of object-role modelling focuses on the design as well as analysis of data and it should be taken into consideration while creating the so called object-role modelling diagrams, which can be simply created in ConceptDraw PRO software within a very short period of time having all the needed tools, provided by the solutions, that all can be found in the ConceptDraw STORE — another application, developed by the CS Odessa IT specialists in order to simplify all ConceptDraw PRO users’ processes of drawing.

See also samples:


Process Flowchart

When trying to figure out the nature of the problems occurring within a project, there are many ways to develop such understanding. One of the most common ways to document processes for further improvement is to draw a process flowchart, which depicts the activities of the process arranged in sequential order — this is business process management. ConceptDraw PRO is business process mapping software with impressive range of productivity features for business process management and classic project management. This business process management software is helpful for many purposes from different payment processes, or manufacturing processes to chemical processes. Business process mapping flowcharts helps clarify the actual workflow of different people engaged in the same process. This samples were made with ConceptDraw PRO — business process mapping software for flowcharting and used as classic visio alternative because its briefly named "visio for mac" and for windows, this sort of software named the business process management tools. This flowchart diagram shows a process flow of project management. The diagram that is presented here depicts the project life cycle that is basic for the most of project management methods. Breaking a project into phases allows to track it in the proper manner. Through separation on phases, the total workflow of a project is divided into some foreseeable components, thus making it easier to follow the project status. A project life cycle commonly includes: initiation, definition, design, development and implementation phases. Distinguished method to show parallel and interdependent processes, as well as project life cycle relationships. A flowchart diagram is often used as visual guide to project. For instance, it used by marketing project management software for visualizing stages of marketing activities or as project management workflow tools. Created with ConceptDraw PRO — business process mapping software which is flowcharting visio alternative or shortly its visio for mac, this sort of software platform often named the business process management tools.business process flowcharts, flowchart symbols, process flow diagram, workflow diagram, flowchart maker
Picture: Process Flowchart
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Stakeholder Management System

Stakeholder management is a critical component to the successful delivery of any project, programme or activity. ConceptDraw PRO is a powerful diagramming and vector drawing software. Now, thanks to the Stakeholder Onion Diagrams Solution included to the Management Area of ConceptDraw Solution Park, ConceptDraw PRO became also unique stakeholder management system design software.Stakeholder Management System
Picture: Stakeholder Management System
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Data Flow Diagram Symbols. DFD Library

Any information system receives data flows from external sources. In order to visualize them there is a list of data flow diagram symbols that describes how the system components cooperate. If you want to create a data flow diagram, ConceptDraw PRO Solution Park has DFD Library that contains both Yourdon and Gane-Sarson notations. This figure shows the content of vector libraries, delivered with ConceptDraw solution for data flow diagram (DFD). There are three libraries composed from about 50 vector objects used to make data flow diagrams. They include a complete set of objects utilized by Yourdon-Coad and Gane-Sarson notations - two primary notations that are apply for data flow diagramming. Also, one can discover additional "Data flow diagram (DFD)" library that provides a data flow diagram elements for designing level 1 and context-level data flow diagrams.Data Flow Diagram Symbols. DFD Library
Picture: Data Flow Diagram Symbols. DFD Library
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ConceptDraw PRO ER Diagram Tool

Database design is an important part of any project, as databases become more and more complex nowadays. To make the model more representative, entity relationship diagrams are widely used in software engineering area. These diagrams show sets of entities as rectangles connected via lines labeled with their cardinalities. This an example of the ER-diagram developed to store information regarding some online role-playing game. It includes three main elements of ER diagram: entities, relationships and attributes. The entities, attributes and relationships on this ER-diagram is depicted according to the Chen's notation. Chen's notation for Entity Relationship diagrams admits using of rectangles to depict entities, ovals for attributes and ,at least, diamonds to show relationships . ConceptDraw Entity-Relationship Diagrams solution was applied as ERD software to create this diagram.ER Diagram Tool. Chen ERD
Picture: ConceptDraw PRO ER Diagram Tool
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Software Diagrams

IT world is extremely rational and logical. So what can be more precise than Software Diagrams to rate the results of work? Visual statistics is the best way to understand the data. This figure demonstrates the data flow diagram (DFD), which was created to describe the electronic system of custom purchase. This is the process of buying using electronic bar code scanning system. Such systems are used in large stores. The cashier scans the bar code, the system outputs the data on the price of the goods and carries out a purchase process. This DFD utilizes the Gane/Sarson notation. To create it The ConceptDraw DFD solution has been applied.Data Flow Diagram
Picture: Software Diagrams

Business Process Modeling Resume

ConceptDraw PRO is a best business processes modeling software for graphical documenting processes of the company.Internal (private) business process model diagram BPMN 2.0 - Booking
Picture: Business Process Modeling Resume

Components of ER Diagram

It is easy to recreate any informational system structure using diagrams. There are three main components of any ER diagram: entity, attribute and relationship. Basing on these three components, one can define other, less used elements, such as weak entity or relationship, derived attribute, recursive relationship etc. This is the set of graphic elements of ERD Chen's notation. This ERD notation is used to represent an entity–relationship models. It involves the set of geometric forms: rectangles - depicting entities, ovals - representing attributes and diamonds depicting relationships assigned for first-class objects, that can have relationships and attributes of their own. Connections are displayed with arrowed lines. It is known that the Chen's ERD notation is used to show a detailed view of entities and relationships. ConceptDraw Entity-Relationship Diagram solution from the Software Development section of Solution Park provides the ability to create ERD of database structure for software development purposes using the Chen’s notation elements.Components of ER Diagram
Picture: Components of ER Diagram
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Cross-Functional Flowchart

There are many tools to manage a process or to illustrate an algorithm or a workflow. Flowcharting is one of those tools. However, it may be difficult to show complex processes that require multiple attributes or several people in a simple flowchart, so a cross-functional flowchart would be a solution for that situation. To create such flowchart, group processes and steps to labeled rows or columns, and divide those groups with horizontal or vertical parallel lines. It is worth mentioning that there are different types of cross-functional flowcharts, like opportunity or deployment flowchart. This diagram shows a cross-functional flowchart that was made for a trading process. It contains 14 processes, distributed through 5 lines depicting the participants who interact with the process. Also there are connectors that show the data flow of information between processes. The cross-functional flowchart displays a detailed model of the trading process, as well as all participants in the process and how they interact with each other. The lines in the flowchart indicates the position, department and role of the trading process participants.Cross-Functional Flowchart. flowchart maker
Picture: Cross-Functional Flowchart
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Express-G Diagram

The vector stencils library from the solution Information Model Diagrams contains specific data type symbols of the EXPRESS-G notation such as entity data type symbols, simple data type symbols, enumeration data type symbols, defined data type symbols, select data type symbols and specific attribute symbols for ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software. The Information Model Diagrams solution is contained in the Software Development area of ConceptDraw Solution Park.Express-G Diagram - Family Scheme
Picture: Express-G Diagram

SSADM Diagram

The vector stencils library SSADM from the solution Systems engineering contains specific symbols of SSADM diagrams for ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software. The Systems engineering solution is contained in Software Development area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. The example below illustrates the waterfall model used in SSADM. This model involves 5 stages of developing a product such as requirements specification and its' analysis, design, coding and testing.SSADM systems development lifecycle
Picture: SSADM Diagram
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